• Do you bring horses to presentations and perform jousts? How many knights do you have?
In order to remain both cost-effective and versatile enough to present indoors or
outdoors in a variety of venues, our presentations feature
well-documented techniques of swordplay on foot only. Our standard school and library team is comprised of one knight and a stage manager;
for larger events, we are capable of bringing additional armoured knights and incorporating live combat and other
elements, such as our Family Engagement Activities.
There are several ways to make a presentation more affordable. We can cut travel costs
if we're able to arrange an additional booking at another location while we're in the area for your presentation.
We can arrange a longsword or dagger mini-workshop and offset some of the presentation costs by selling workshop
registrations (see Workshops
under Booking). Finally, we can work together to find donors or
sponsors in your area to help defray the costs of a presentation. Contact us for more information.
• How do I join?
We are not a member-based reenactment organization, but rather a professional organization of educators.
We occasionally have volunteer positions available, and very seldom have paid positions available.
If you are interested in learning historical swordsmanship,
Veritas Swordplay Academy is open
to those who are interested in studying with us.
• Do you use real swords?
Absolutely. The swords we use in our presentations are the same in design, weight and function as the
historical originals. That being said, we do not bring sharp swords to our presentations,
for obvious reasons. Even with dull edges, they remain quite potent and are not toys. It is our training which makes
them safe for us to use
in our presentations. For more details of our training, please visit Veritas Swordplay Academy.
• Do you make your own swords?
No. Our swords are made in the US by Albion Swords. Properly building a sword is a demanding art,
involving not only making sure the weapon looks like an historical original, but also making sure it's weight, balance,
center of percussion and performance are correct as well. Medieval knights didn't make their own swords, either.
They, too, purchased them from experts who knew their craft very well.
• Weren't medieval swords heavy and awkward to use?
Not in the way that television and movies would have you believe. A longsword, which
is approximately 48" in overall length, had a weight range of about 2.5 to 3.5 lbs. An average single-handed sword,
with an overall length of about 38", weighed in at about 2 to 3 lbs. Even the largest two-handed swords ever meant
for battlefield use in the renaissance period, sometimes at a towering 72", averaged only 6 lbs., with 8 lbs. being
considered the very top end of acceptable weight for that type. Swords could get bigger and heavier, but such
items were called bearing swords, and were meant for use only for display, such as in parades.
As with any tool, to appreciate the characteristics of a weapon, one must train with it to learn how to effectively use it.
The result is that the weapon becomes an extension of your body, facilitating deliberate and efficient movements,
rather than brutish chopping as most people are accustomed to thinking. The best online source for
sword measurements and weights is
the Wallace Collection
• Why don't you use shields?
Knights did use shields for a very large portion of the middle ages. However, by the late 1300s, which is the
time period represented by Knights of Veritas, the protective quality of the armour
itself had developed to the point
that, aside from tournaments, the shield was no longer as necessary for the knight. This freed up the left hand
to use two-handed weapons like the longsword, which is featured
in our presentations. Additionally, there is abundant documentation for the usage of the longsword from the 1300s and on,
while there is no known period documentation for the older form of knightly combat with large shields.
Demonstrating large shield techniques for our
time period would therefore be, at best, speculation.
• Is your armour real?
Absolutely. Our replica armour is really made of steel, and is similar in design, weight
and function to the historical iron and steel originals. The main difference is that our armour is made of
stainless steel, for ease of maintenance.
• What style is your armour?
Our armour is typical of that seen on knights in the late 1300s based on period illustrations, sculpture and
surviving artifacts. During this time, mail armour was still used extensively, but
was increasingly being supplemented by armour made of thin iron or steel plates. The mail-clad shield-carrying
earlier times was now in the past, but the true "knight in shining armour," completely encased in plate armour,
was still a few decades off as well. Hence,
this phase of armour development is often referred to as the "transitional" period. Regionally, we are representative
of knights as seen in central Europe, specifically German territories, though during our time period the style was
broadly international in nature.
• Do you make your own armour?
Some of the armour we use was made by Knights of Veritas
Director Eric Slyter, who was a professional full-time armourer for several years. Other parts were crafted
by talented craftsmen from the world over, such as Poland and Ukraine. Crafting armour is a very specific sort of
trade, and medieval knights didn't make their own armour. Usually, they sought the most "name brand" armourer
they could, and would spend great sums of money to make sure that the armour not only fit correctly and functioned
properly, but showed off their wealth and status as well.
• How much does a full suit of armour weigh?
Approximately 60 lbs., historically, for a suit of armour intended to be worn on the
battlefield. The weight is well distributed across the body, and is far easier to wear on the body than
carrying the same weight around in a sack. Some armour made for tournament jousting was built heavier and
was more restrictive to movement, because it was essentially safety equipment only designed to protect
the wearer while engaged in a specific, regulated, friendly activity. Battlefield armours required
versatility, and could not be so heavy and restrictive or they would endanger the wearer.
(armour weights: Heavy Metal: Focus on European Armour, Smith, 2004; among many others.)
• What if you fall down in the armour? Can you get back up?
Yes. Getting back up in full armour is not difficult. If wearing the
armour actually endangered the wearer in the course of normal activities, it would not have seen such extensive use.
The real question is if you can get up quickly enough when the person who knocked you down is still attacking you!
• Isn't the armour hot?
Yes, with layers of clothing worn underneath the armour and the armour itself, the heat is the worst
thing about wearing the armour. As you move in the armour, your body temperature rises and the heat has nowhere to go.
For this reason, and for the weight, the historical combat masters warned armoured combatants to keep their movement
minimal so as to not tire out in their armour.
Keep in mind, regarding comfort, that medieval Europe was several degrees cooler than today, and our
representation is that of knights from central Europe, which
would arguably have been cooler still.
• What sword style do you practice?
We study and demonstrate the techniques attributed to Johannes
Liechtenauer, who was a German sword master. It is believed that he lived in the 1300s, and
synthesized his distinctive fighting art after traveling extensively and studying with other
masters. His original cryptic verses were elaborated upon by his successors in a tradition
which saw dozens of manuscripts dated between 1389 and 1612. Knights of
works primarily from manuscripts from the 1300s and 1400s, which was when the tradition was still
for earnest combat rather than the sport-like forms it assumed in the 1500s and later.
is one of the major disciplines in the Historical European Martial Arts movement.
• What is Historical European Martial Arts?
Historical European Martial Arts, or HEMA for short, are the historical combat traditions of
Western cultures, namely Europe. This is a matter of distinction from Eastern Martial Arts, popularly known in
the form of such traditions as Karate, Kung Fu, etc., originating from Eastern cultures. Unfortunately, when
people think "martial arts," the tendency is to immediately think of Eastern forms to the exclusion
of all else. The fact is that there are dozens of surviving manuals from the middle ages and renaissance
which include illustrations and detailed descriptions of the combat forms popular in their day. Despite the abundance of such documentation,
it is only since the late 1990s or so that Historical European Martial Arts have begun experiencing a renaissance
of their own, with avid historians and practical-minded fighters attempting to re-create the historical combat
arts of Europe.
• Are Historical European Martial Arts similar to Eastern Martial Arts?
In many ways, yes. The end result of any martial art grounded in effectiveness is to dispatch
a foe quickly and simply, and those Eastern Martial Arts that retain these traits also share them with Historical
European Martial Arts. The human body only has so many ways it can move, and those who were determined to hurt
one another were very skilled at finding the very best ways of doing so, no matter what continent they came from.
Possibly the largest difference may be that, since some Eastern Martial Arts have been passed down orally over so
many generations, in some cases they have become a sport or fitness activity rather than a way of actually fighting.
Since Historical European Martial Arts has no living tradition and is based on the interpretation of period manuscripts,
those involved in interpreting them have the benefit of learning second-hand from those who literally lived and died
by practicing these fighting arts in their original forms. Ultimately, what has been revealed is that the combat
traditions of the European medieval and renaissance periods is easily on par with those of any other culture.
Effective fighting is universal.
• Are Historical European Martial Arts similar to the fencing I've seen on the Olympics?
Only in a very limited way. Olympic style fencing is a modern sport that came about as a result of
19th Century duellists needing a safe way to train for duels. At that time, known as the "Classical" era of
fencing, it was still about actually using the weapon for one's defense in a real encounter, and for that reason
Classical fencing is considered a genuine martial art. Since modern fencing derived from Classical fencing,
it has inherited a connection to an actual practical combat art. However, like some Eastern Martial Arts,
modern fencing is not driven by defending one's life in a real fight with a real sword like a martial art would be,
but rather a sport concerned with technical form and scoring points during a match. It's connection to an actual
martial art isn't all that far back in it's past, but modern fencing does not resemble medieval combat.
• Are Historical European Martial Arts similar to what we see in movies?
Very little of what is seen in movies bears any resemblance to actual historical combat.
It must be remembered at all times that movies, television, games, and other forms of entertainment are just
that- entertainment. Most moves seen in stage or theatrical combat would get a person injured (or worse!)
quickly if defending their life against someone skilled in historical combat arts. This is a distinction
that we emphasize to our students at
Veritas Swordplay Academy.
• What kind of horses did the knights ride for combat?
Contrary to popular belief, knights in history neither preferred nor required large, heavy horses
that would be comparable to modern draft breeds like Clydesdales. Typically, the horses were 13.5-15 hands
high (54" - 60" at the shoulder) and built solid with dense bone structure, more like today's
Andalusian or Lipizzaner horses. Historically, however, horses were bred for type and traits, not specific
breeds at that time. Among the traits that were specifically called out as desirable by the masters of the
time were speed and agility, which were traits that could get the knight in and out of a tight situation
quickly and safely. Most prized of all, though, was gait, or the smoothness with which the
horse moved. When we consider that fully armoured knights were killed on the battlefield with
very precise injuries such as a lance to the well-protected throat or eyes, we realize just how
important a smooth gait is to the knight's ability to hit his target accurately. Although there are
individual exceptions, draft breeds generally possess a rough, jarring gait that would be unsuitable
for such precise combat. (The Medieval Warhorse and Its Equipment, Museum of London, 1995; The Martial Arts of Renaissance Europe, Anglo, 2000.)
• Isn't it true that a knight had to be put on horseback with a crane?
No, this is a myth. It originated with Mark Twain's Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court,
wherein one of the illustrations of that book showed a knight being winched onto his horse. There is no documentation
from any period source that indicates that this was necessary or ever done, and we know both from period accounts
and modern experimentation that battlefield armour was not so heavy and restrictive as to require this.
• Wasn't everyone short back then?
Just as today, there were short, tall, and in-between people back then. Skeletal evidence of
commoners in the 15th Century place the average male at about 5' 8" and the average female at about 5' 2".
There are examples, of course, of people from that era that were shorter than average as well as those taller than
average, just like today. (The Cemetery of St Nicholas Shambles, White, 1988, pgs 30-31.)